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A liability account is a general ledger account in which a company records its debt, obligations, customer deposits and customer prepayments, certain deferred income taxes, etc. that are the result of a past transaction. Common liability accounts under the accrual method of accounting include Accounts Payable, Accrued Liabilities (amounts owed but not yet recorded in Accounts Payable), Notes Payable, Unearned Revenues, Deferred Income Taxes (certain temporary timing differences), etc.
The balance sheet presents a company's financial position at the end of a specified date. Some describe the balance sheet as a "snapshot" of the company's financial position at a point (a moment or an instant) in time. For example, the amounts reported on a balance sheet dated December 31, 2014 reflect that instant when all the transactions through December 31 have been recorded.
Buildings, machinery, equipment, furniture, fixtures, computers, outdoor lighting, parking lots, cars, and trucks are examples of assets that will last for more than one year, but will not last indefinitely. During each accounting period (year, quarter, month, etc.) a portion of the cost of these assets is being used up. The portion being used up is reported as Depreciation Expense on the income statement. In effect depreciation is the transfer of a portion of the asset's cost from the balance sheet to the income statement during each year of the asset's life.
The cash flow statement reports the cash generated and used during the time interval specified in its heading. The period of time that the statement covers is chosen by the company. For example, the heading may state "For the Three Months Ended December 31, 2014" or "The Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2014"
When a company orders and receives goods (or services) in advance of paying for them, we say that the company is purchasing the goods on account or on credit. The supplier (or vendor) of the goods on credit is also referred to as a creditor. If the company receiving the goods does not sign a promissory note, the vendor's bill or invoice will be recorded by the company in its liability account Accounts Payable (or Trade Payables).